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Release: Alma - blue grama

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Release NameAlma
Release Typecultivar
DescriptionPerennial, robust, blue grama with upright growth, 40-80 cm tall, good seedling vigor. Comparisons of 9044169 with Hachita in Colorado dryland trials showed: 9044169 usually exhibited higher percentage emergence; 9044169 and Hachita did not differ for forage productivity and crude protein percentage.
SourceThe base population was composed of 270 plants from each of the following: Hachita, Lovington, and PMK-1483.
Breeding MethodThe primary objective was to select for heavier caryopsis weight, greater seedling emergence from deep planting depths, more seedling vigor, and greater seed and forage production. The intent was to combine the beneficial seed and seedling traits with the wide adaptation of Lovington, Hachita, and PMK-1483. Three cycles of recurrent selection were conducted. In each cycle, 40,000 seeds were sown as polycross progenies in pots in a greenhouse and covered with 4 cm of dry soil. The seeds in pots were watered by subirrigation. About 1,500 of the most vigorous seedlings, including those with the longest adventitious roots, were selected and transplanted to the field. In the field, these plants were rated for forage yield and number of seeds per culm. Seeds were harvested from the best 50-60% of these plants, and the seeds were evaluated for caryopsis weight and fertility. From this population, 60-90 plants which excelled for all traits were selected and clonally propagated. Four clonal replicates of each selected plant were grown in isolation to produce seed for cycle 2. Selection in cycles 2 and 3 was conducted as in cycle 1, except that there were 24 clonal replicates of the 90 selected plants in the cycle 3 crossing block. Seed from the cycle 3 crossing block served as breeder seed. Mean caryopsis weights for the base population and generations 1 and 2 were 47.2, 55.1, and 65.3 mg/100 caryopsis, respectively. Realized heritability for caryopsis weight was 84% averaged over the two cycles. Progenies varied significantly (P < 0.01) in caryopsis weight, percentage emergence, and length of adventitious roots; the broad sense heritabilities of these traits were 88, 65, 62%, respectively.
Intended UseRangeland improvement and go-back cropland reseeding in southern and central Western Great Plains.
Release Info1992 by Los Lunas PMC
Source StateNM


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